Every year Rugby School hosts a day for physics teachers, which includes lectures and workshops.
3D Printing in Education
Marcin Poblocki, Research Technician at University of Liverpool
3D printing was developed by Charles Hull in 1984
Chuck Hull (Charles W. Hull; born May 12, 1939) is the co-founder, executive vice president and chief technology officer of 3D Systems. He is the inventor of the solid imaging process known as stereolithography (3D Printing), the first commercial rapid prototyping technology, and the STL file format. He is named on more than 60 U.S. patents as well as other patents around the world in the fields of ion optics and rapid prototyping. He was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2014 and in 2017 was one of the first inductees into the TCT Hall of Fame.
In 1986 he took out a stereolithography patent.
Similar technologies such as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) and Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) were introduced a few years later.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fused_filament_fabrication Used in the making of prototypes, education, hobbies and low volume production of complex parts.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_laser_sintering Highly accurate products produced. Does not require tools.
In 1993, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented another technology, named “3 Dimensional Printing techniques” (3DP), which is similar to the inkjet technology used in 2D printers.
Throughout the 1990’s there was a rapid development of CAD (computer aided design) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-aided_design
In 2006, a breakthrough open source printing project, named Reprap, was developed in England. The rep-rap was capable of manufacturing various plastic parts, roughly 50% of itself.
In 2008 the first 3D prosthetic leg was produced.
Throughout 2010 there was a rapid development of CAD software.
There are lots of other 3D scanning techniques. These include:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Selective_laser_melting Used in engineering, product design, research, education, jewellery, the space industry, tool manufacture and digital dentistry
Digital Light Processing (DLP) used in engineering, product design, research, education, jewellery and digital dentistry
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electron-beam_additive_manufacturing Used in the space industry, tool manufacture, jewellery and implants
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laminated_object_manufacturing Used in hobbies and making multiple prototypes
Materials used in 3D printing include:
ABS, short for Acylonitrile Butadiene Styrene, is an oil-based plastic and PLA, short for Poly Lactic Acid, is made from organic material — specifically cornstarch and sugarcane.
HIPS stands for high impact polystyrene. High impact polystyrene is a synthetic copolymer that is strong, durable, non-toxic and recyclable.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Polyvinyl_alcohol Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH, PVA, or PVAl) is a water-soluble synthetic polymer.
ThermoPlastic Polyurethane (TPU) is essentially a plastic with rubber-like characteristics.
https://3dwithus.com/wood-filament It often consists of 60-70% polymers and 40-30% of recycled wood fibres of different kinds.
Metal filled filaments contain very fine metal powder such as Copper, Bronze, Brass, and Stainless Steel. The percentage of metal powder infused in each filament can vary depending on the manufacturer. The presence of this metal powder makes the filament much heavier than standard plastics.
Conductive filaments are composed of a mixture of carbon and a standard 3D printing plastic
Magnetic filaments are made by infusing finely ground iron powder to a base material.
Assessment of the new A level physics practical work
Catherine Witter, AQA and Joanne Avison
This workshop showcased how teachers have approached their planning for, assessment of and tracking of the Common Practical Assessment Criteria (CPAC).
What is considered to be best practice? What do the lab records of our best students look like? Why is it that some schools and colleges have required support and a follow up monitoring visit? What impact is the endorsement of practical skills having on university offers? This workshop was aimed at supporting teachers further to signpost good practice in readiness for the monitoring visits going forward.
At least 15% of all questions on A level papers must be on the practicals.
Common Practical Assessment Criteria (CPAC):
Can the student follow instructions;
Can the student work safely;
Can the student use the equipment;
Can the student make accurate measurements;
Can the student apply investigative approaches and methods;
Can the student research, write reports and makes sure all references are acknowledged
Students need to be consistently monitored throughout the course. This should include questioning. Are students recording the required data; do they understand why they are doing things.
Phantoms or Physics – Magic that was physics they didn’t see
Nuria Munoz Molina (Science on Stage Spain) and David Featonby (SonS UK)
A selection of old and new “demonstrations” which in times gone by were called magic. From the historical “Peppers Ghost” ,”Headless Bodies” and holography, to magic (??) lanterns, with a little everyday magic to serve as a stimulus to our classes today!!
What is a wizard or a witch? Today we would say that that they are people who work with “magic”. The term is bandied about.
In science we ask the correct questions. Magicians work by asking the “wrong” questions.